Chapter 7. Monitoring & Evaluation (Step 5)

M&E is a critical component of program activities. M&E provides empirical, culturally relevant, contextual information and allows for collaboration (as needed) in the assessment of immediate, intermediate, and long-term effects of project activities. Monitoring results can be used to determine whether programs goals are being met. Evaluation results can identify activities that are or are not successful, and identify means for improvement. A program plan should include a full M&E plan. The M&E plan should assess indicators directly related to the SBCC objectives. The Pathways Framework (Appendix D) includes examples of initial and behavioral outcomes. Specific indicators for the outcomes are used to determine whether objectives are being met.


M&E indicators may include those for process, output, outcome, and impact. The process/input indicators measure what was done, the output measures who was reached, the outcome measures what effect that reach had, and the health impact measures the higher-level result of the campaign. The following table describes these different types of indicators and offers examples of specific measures of these indicators.   Types of M&E Indicators and Examples of Specific Measures

Process Indicators Program Output Indicators Behavioral Outcome Indicators Health Impact Indicators
Measure what was done through the program Measure who was reached through the program activities What effect that reach had on behaviors Measure changes in health outcomes
Example: Percent of social mobilizers trained in communication and community engagement; Number of radio spots broadcast during a specific time period Example: Number of households who were included in the door-to-door SM campaigns; Proportion of target audience who report having heard radio broadcast spots Example: Percent of people who know at least five Ebola signs and symptoms; Rate of increase in the target audience who wash their hands Example: *Reduction in the number of Ebola cases or reduction in case fatality
*This indicator will address association of the communication intervention but not causation.

Additional sample indicators for Ebola communication are in Appendix A. Illustrative Ebola Communication Strategy.  

Illustrative Example: Monitoring & Evaluation

View examples of M&E approaches for an Ebola communications campaign.

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