Existing Scales for Evaluating Impact


When developing or revising your monitoring and evaluation plan to integrate gender, it is useful to consider existing indicators and scales that have been developed and validated to examine gender-related constructs. Below is a list of indicators and scales that have been used in a variety of locations with diverse populations. The indicators and scales have been used to measure decision-making, communication, power relations, access to opportunities and resources, and other gender norms and attitudes. 

Name of MeasureAspect of Gender MeauredExample QuestionFor More Information
Gender Equitable Men ScaleGender norms and attitudes“I would be outraged if my wife asked me to use a condom”Barker, G, M Nascimento, J Pulerwitz, C Ricardo, M Segundo, and R Verma. 2006. Engaging young men in violence prevention: Reflections from Latin America and India. In Combating gender violence in and around schools. F Leach and C Mitchell, eds. Trowbridge, UK: Cromwell Press.

FHI360: C-Change. Compendium of Gender Scales

Gender Equity ScaleGender norms and attitudesParticipants are asked about their level of agreement with multiple phrases, such as: “A wife should manage the household with whatever money the husband gives.”Kostic, KM, Schensul, SL, Singh, R, Pelto, P, Saggurti, N. A methodology for building culture and gender norms into intervention: An example from Mumbai, India. Soc Sci Med, 2011; 72(10):1630-1638.
Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture IndexDecision-making, access to opportunities and resources (employment, leadership roles)“To what extent do you feel you can make your own personal decisions regarding these aspects of household life if you want(ed) to…”Alkire, S., Meinzen-Dick, R., Peterman, A., Quisumbing, A., Seymour, G., & Vaz, A. (2013). The women’s empowerment in agriculture index. World Development, 52, 71-91.

International Food Policy Research Institute. Women's Empowerment in Agriculture Index.

Couple Communication on Sex ScalePartner communication“Can your partner communicate with you about when to have intercourse?”Leon, F, R Lundgren, and C Vasquez. Couple communication on sex scale. Institute for Reproductive Health, Georgetown University. Draft manuscript.

FHI360: C-Change. Compendium of Gender Scales

Women’s Empowerment ScalePower relations (mobility)“Have you ever been to the bazaar? Have you ever been there alone?”Schuler, Sidney Ruth, Hashemi, Syed Mesbahuddin, & Riley, Ann P. (1997). The influence of women’s changing roles and status in Bangladesh’s fertility transition: Evidence from a study of credit programs and contraceptive use. World Development, 25(4), 563-575. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0305- 750X(96)00119-2

FHI360: C-Change. Compendium of Gender Scales

DHS Women’s Status and Empowerment IndicatorsHousehold decision-making, access to opportunities and resources, power relations“Is a wife justified in refusing sex with her husband if…”

  1. Husband has an STI
  2. Husband has sex with other women
  3. Wife is tired or not in the mood
Singh, K., Bloom, S., Haney, E., Olorunsaiye, C., & Brodish, P. (2012). Gender equality and childbirth in a health facility: Nigeria and MDG5. African journal of reproductive health, 16(3).

Wado, YD. (2013). Women’s Autonomy and Reproductive Healthcare-Seeking Behavior in Ethiopia. DHS Working Papers no. 91. Calverton, Maryland, USA: ICF International. Retrieved from http:// dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/WP91/WP91.pdf

DHS Program. Gender Corner. Women's Status and Empowerment

UN General Statistics Manual Access to OpportunitiesAccess to resources (leadership roles)“Share of women among legislators, senior officials and managers”United Nations. The World's Women 2010: Trends and Statistics
Gender Norm Attitudes ScaleGender norms and attitudesParticipants are asked about their level of agreement with multiple phrases, such as: “If there is limited amount of money to pay for tutoring, it should be spent on the sons first”Waszak, C, JL Severy, L Kafafi, and I Badawi. 2000. Fertility behavior and psychological stress: The mediating influence of gender norm beliefs among Egyptian women. Psychology of Women Quarterly 25:197–208.

FHI360: C-Change. Compendium of Gender Scales


Learn about SBCC and Gender - 86%