|Overview of Strategic Approaches that can be used in Demand Generation
Advocacy: Advocacy operates at the political, social, and individual levels and works to mobilize resources and political and social commitment for social change and/or policy change. Advocacy aims to create an enabling environment at any level, including the community level (i.e. traditional government or local religious endorsement), to ask for greater resources, encourage allocating resources equitably, and to remove barriers to policy implementation. Scaling Up Lifesaving Commodities for Women, Children, and Newborns: An Advocacy Toolkit provides advocacy resources to raise awareness and engage stakeholders in addressing commodity-related gaps in policy.
|Community-Based Media: Community-based media reach communities through locally-established outlets. Such outlets include local radio stations and community newsletters/newspapers as well as activities such as rallies, public meetings, folk dramas, and sporting events.
|Community Mobilization: Community mobilization is a capacity-building process through which community individuals, groups, or organizations plan, carry out, and evaluate activities on a participatory and sustained basis to improve their lives, either on their own initiative or stimulated by others. A successful community mobilization effort not only works to solve problems but also aims to increase the capacity of a community to successfully identify and address its own needs. For guidance on community mobilization see Howard-Grabman, L. & Snetro, G. (2003) How to Mobilize Communities for Health and Social Change, available here.
Counseling: Counseling is based on one-to-one communication and is often done with a trusted and influential communicator such as a counselor, teacher, or health provider. Counseling tools or job aids are usually also produced to help clients and counselors improve their interactions, with service providers trained to use the tools and aids.
Distance Learning: Distance learning provides a learning platform that does not require attendance at a specific location. Rather, the students access the course content either through a radio or via the internet and interact with their teacher and fellow classmates through letters, telephone calls, SMS texts, chat rooms or internet sites. Distance learning courses can focus on training communication specialists, community mobilizers, health educators, and service providers. Additional information on eLearning can be found at the Global Health eLearning Center.
|Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs): ICTs are fast growing and evolving platforms for electronic, digital technologies, including computing and telecommunications technologies, which enable communication and promote the interactive exchange of information. ICTs also include mobile and smart phones and the use of SMS, and social media such as Facebook, Twitter, Linked In, blogs, e-Forums, and chat rooms. This approach also includes web sites, e-mails, listservs, and message boards. Digital media can disseminate tailored messages to the intended audience on a large scale while also receiving audience feedback and encouraging real-time conversations, combining mass communication and interpersonal interaction A “ Theory-Based Framework for Media Selection in Demand Generation Programs” and “Utilizing ICT in Demand Generation for Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn and Child Health: Three Case Studies and Recommendations for Future Programming” are useful resources for program managers looking to utilize ICT in demand generation activities.
|Interpersonal Communication (IPC)/Peer Communication: Interpersonal and peer communication are based on one-to-one communication. This could be peer-to-peer communication or communication with a community health worker (CHW), community leader or religious leader.
|Mass Media: Mass media can reach large audiences cost-effectively through radio, television, and newspapers or magazines. According to a review of mass media campaigns, those that follow the principles of effective campaign design and are well executed can have small to moderate effect size not only on health knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes, but on behaviors as well (Noar, 2006). Given the potential to reach thousands of people, a small to moderate effect size will have a greater impact on public health than would an approach that has a large effect size but only reaches a small number of people.
|Social Mobilization: Social mobilization brings relevant sectors such as organizations, policy makers, networks, and communities together to raise awareness, empower individuals and groups for action, and work towards creating an enabling environment and effecting positive behavior and/or social change
Support Media/Mid-Media: Mid-media’s reach is less than that of mass media and includes posters, brochures, and billboards.